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Ra.Nithy

Afghanistan

  An impression comes to our mind as to whether history is moving backward. There are many political and social scenes in the world as if all events were being pulled back. Even though today’s world claims to be achieving various developments in language, art, culture, literature, technology, and globalization; In part, we can see that the contradictions and controversies caused by the people dragging history back are causing great war and great destruction in this world. For example, even though human beings speak civilly of giving importance to human emotions over religion, secularism, and religious diversity;

 For example, even if human beings speak civilly of giving importance to human emotions beyond religion, secularism, and religious diversity; Once again, in the same old place, the action of men who trap people in the clutches of religion, cause degradation, lead to wrong feelings, shape superstitions, single politicize, gain power and lead to the degradation of mankind is visible before our eyes. The greatest example of this is the ongoing war and degradation in Afghanistan.  

In these degradations, we do not know if time will return aboutIndeed, the “Golden Age” in Afghanistan. But the dream of Afghanistan’s death, the old events are coming back to our minds, like appear as a reflection of the image in our minds. Between 1963 and 1973, the country recorded the history of Afghanistan as the Golden Age.

Between 1963 and 1973, the country recorded the history of Afghanistan as the Golden Age. Afghanistan was seen at that time as a country that had improved in politics, society, and economics among the tribals, traditions, and contradictory ideas, a section of the population was getting used to accepting the nature of the change in anticipation of changes.  

During this period, Afghan King Zakir Shah wanted to see modern changes in Afghanistan with close links to afghan intellectuals, technicians, and social groups who wanted changes among the learners.  

Many Afghans graduated from higher education institutions in the United States and began working together in social life. It was due to Zakir Shah’s educational and progressive ideas. Zahir Shah continued his education in English at Habibiya High School in England in 1904 and went to Amania High School for his secondary education. Many subjects were taught in French. So under his rule, everyone had the opportunity to get an equal education. Both men and women sat equally and were educated in mixed schools. There were no restrictions on girls’ education at that time. Kabul University was then one of the best universities in Asia.

70% more women than men are educated at this university. Students had the opportunity to go abroad to study. Tourism has grown tremendously during this period. Those people had the freedom to go to any territory without hindrance and enjoy their happiness.
He seemed to be a relatively liberal leader compared to previous kings; Zahir Shah did not sign his order to hang anyone for political reasons during his reign. He used his power several times to reduce the death penalty to certain convicts convicted in court cases.  

 .The new constitution was introduced in 1964 at the behest of Zahir Shah, who transformed Afghanistan’s society into a modern democracy, introducing free elections, parliament, civil liberties, women’s rights under the law, and universal suffrage.  It then paved the way for the government of Afghanistan to rule the people democratically under a limited monarchy of a political system. Indeed, the politics of Afghanistan at the time were often seen as paradoxical and worrying.  

 But people have embraced the succeeding changes. They welcomed modernization and independence. They began to travel in a new mode of governance, distinguishing their country from authoritarian systems such as those found in the military regime countries such as Pakistan, Iran, or the Soviet Union. So the great expectation that Afghanistan would then be an exemplary country for Asian countries was seen among political scholars.

It was during this period that Afghanistan began to function with a democratic political system and a parliamentary monarchy. In Afghanistan at that time, women won the parliamentary elections on an equal footing with men.  “Anahita Ratebzad ” was elected the first woman MP.

  Afghanistan is now an influential country for drugs such as opium. Through it, the Afghan people in the 60s did not incline to produce such drugs compared to the present time when ordinary poor people are trying form to capture to improve their basic livelihoods. but during that period large quantities of manufactured goods came from rural to urban markets, of which grains and handlooms were the most important. Foreigners roamed the cities during their vacations. They sought comfortable places for entertainment.

With the advent of the open market system, rural people have the opportunity to recover from the grip of poverty. The situation was such that men and women could travel safely between cities and provinces without any fear. People gathered seeking business centers. The number of students in primary and secondary schools increased. So it was obvious that the educated community was growing rapidly at that time.


Students from abroad began to study with local students. The number of medical and engineering colleges increased. The girls were eagerly educated at the University of Kabul. More than 50 percent of teachers and civil servants in Kabul educated women and urban women enjoyed freedom in their clothing. Their style and behavior were pleasing them. The face was uncovered and the head was covered and the scarf was worn. Parents also allowed their children to travel and play freely in parks and recreation areas. This is a wonderful time in the history of Afghanistan.

Even in the rural areas where agrarian people were more likely to stay, the public sector, government protection for the people, social services, and judicial services had been neatly organized and government employees widely assisted by the rural population. A significant number of qualified and educated women among the male staff also served as staff.

 Despite the United States’ selfish involvement in domestic infrastructure and foreign development in Afghanistan, international bilateral trade, diversified foreign aid, their promised projects, road development, bridges, and irrigation have flourished. Kabul Airport was built by the Soviet Union. The United States also built the largest airport in Kandahar. A large highway was built between Kabul and Kandahar under the USAID project.

 Soviet Union donations were used extensively for agricultural projects north of Kabul. Such development projects were seen as attractive. The East and West competed during the Cold War to help Afghanistan. Foreign exchange earnings were largely due to export and import trade activities. Fruits, grains, and clothing products were exported during this period. For example pomegranate, grapes, raisins, pistachios, almonds, walnuts, and a variety of grains. The income of the villagers increased.

Even the students have also staged protests demanding the appointment of English teachers to schools during this period. So small changes like this have expanded beyond plans for Cold War events in Afghanistan. The Western cultural exchange on the one hand and the Soviet Union cultural exchange on the other took place alternately in Afghanistan.

The young women in the field of sports began to participate with much involvement. The young men and women there took part in a variety of sports, including tennis, football, and basketball. Participated in tennis tournaments, golf tournaments, and basketball tournaments held through embassies in Kabul. Participated in pick-up games sponsored by embassies and the UN. 

Writer Sharif, who emigrated from Afghanistan in 1976 to study abroad, recalls his memory sharing, exchanging, and smiling with Afghan family tea and fruit with their visiting Jewish friends. Numerous tourists came to Kabul at that time. He says the Europeans then called Kabul the Paris of Central Asia. “In the post-World War II years, the 50s, 60s, and early 70s, the Afghan period was a golden period,” says Gould.

 .Shourish-Shamli, founder and director of the Women’s Alliance for Peace and Human Rights in Afghanistan, said,” People who worked for the king believed in democracy and the rights of the people.   there was a wave of freedom here in the 60s.’

According to Tanya Amri, an Afghan-American who spent her childhood in Kabul, the wave of freedom’s filtered the lives of ordinary people, “she says. He recalls the time when Amri lived in his wonderful Afghanistan, where his mother worked as a journalist and his father worked at the US embassy. The mother says the same., and his father worked in the U.S. Embassy. When she told some Americans that her mother worked as a journalist in Afghanistan, they couldn’t digest the news. But then the woman wore a  Miniskirt and his mother says the same.

Religious intolerance may be a problem in Afghanistan today, but not in the past such as. The country has a history of religious tolerance. Mixed religious traditions can be found in two rising statues of the Buddha carved on a cliff in central Afghanistan. Afghanistan was crossed by the ancient Silk Road connecting China with Rome. Wool, gold, silk, and spices were found for sale on the roads. More and more Buddhist and Hindu pilgrims settled in Afghanistan says, Fitzgerald. Thus religious tolerance was found there.

   Shorish-Shamli recalls the cultural richness of Afghanistan from his childhood. Although many of the people there are Muslims, he also recalls attending Jewish holiday celebrations. Hindus, Sikhs, Shias, and Sunnis lived in easy friendship with each other. “My mother’s best friends were the Jews,” says Amri.

The US ambassador to Afghanistan in the early 1970s, Elizabeth Gould, co-author of the book “Invisible History,” said she saw Afghan citizens’ keen interest in democracy and the rightful discussion of their politics on the streets, and that women wore modern cloth appropriately for trendy Afghans. They also participated freely in decorative  competitions  

Not only this, with the advent of land rights for women in Afghanistan during this period, women became more independent and had all the individual decision-making power.

The reason why the dream that has existed so far is fading 

 The stability of Afghanistan began to unravel in 1973. A military coup overthrew Zahir Shah. Does the question arise as to why a conspiracy was won when he was so honest? Under the communist rule in the late 1970s, the internal stability of Afghanistan deteriorated. In 1979, the Soviet Union invaded and overthrew the country. But Soviet forces were embroiled in a 10-year military conflict. The Soviet regime was finally driven out of the country by US-backed anti-Afghan militants. The Afghan anti-Soviet movements were victorious and seized power. But it eventually began a civil war and in 1996 ceded power to the Mujahideen and the Taliban.

 The Taliban, although mostly native to Afghanistan, was raised by Pakistan’s military and intelligence. C.N.My national security analyst Peter Bergen says the Taliban would never have been able to capture Afghanistan without Pakistan support the Taliban should be seen as the creation of Pakistani intelligence to capture Afghanistan and form a Pakistan-friendly government,” says Elizabeth Gould, author of the book ” Invisible History.”

.Disagreeable Taliban

Shorish-Shamli, an Afghan women’s activist, says it is useless to negotiate with the Taliban. Pakistan’s support is needed to defeat the Taliban. The rise of the Taliban will destabilize Pakistan. China’s diplomatic approach will stop at one point, which Pakistan knows from experience. So the West can also bring down the Taliban through the combined diplomacy of Pakistan and India

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